用WiX编写MSI安装包

 

WiX(Windows Installer XML)是Rob Mensching(Windows组的一个SDE)写的一个用来编写MSI安装包的工具集,已经被微软内部的很多产品组采用,例如Office组,以及我所在的MSN组,等等。

下面是WiX的一个简单例子(相当于高级的Hello World!的级别),在这个例子中编写了一个SimpleCopy.msi。安装SimpleCopy.msi将能够:

  • 创建C:\Program Files\SimpleCopy目录并拷贝一系列文件;
  • 创建HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\MPG Lab注册表键,该键下的DestPath变量存储了一个文件路径,DestPath可以在msiexec命令行中用DESTPATH来指定;
  • 创建名为SimplyCopy的Scheduled Task,该任务每小时运行一次,执行C:\Program Files\SimpleCopy\SimpleCopy.exe,将该目录下data\source.xml拷贝到DestPath中指定的目录;
  • Uninstall时,安装时拷贝的文件、创建的注册表键和Scheduled Task都将被删除。

下面就是用WiX编写SimpleCopy.msi的步骤:

1. 从http://sourceforge.net/projects/wix下载wix的2.0.3220.0版本并解压到硬盘,将candle.exe所在的路径添加到Path环境变量中;
2. 用C#编写SimpleCopy.cs并用csc.exe在同一目录下编译成SimpleCopy.exe:

using System; using System.IO; using System.Reflection; using Microsoft.Win32; namespace SimpleCopy ...{ internal class Application ...{ [STAThread] private static void Main(string[] args) ...{ string sourcexml = GetExecutableLocation() + @"\data\source.xml"; if (File.Exists(sourcexml))...{ DateTime now = DateTime.Now; File.Copy(sourcexml, Application.QueryDestPath() + @"\source_" + now.ToString("yyMMdd_HH.mm.ss") + ".xml", true); } else...{ StreamWriter writer = new StreamWriter(QueryDestPath() + @"\error.log", false); writer.WriteLine(DateTime.Now.ToString()); writer.WriteLine("Cannot find source file: " + sourcexml); writer.Close(); } } private static string QueryDestPath() ...{ RegistryKey regkey = Registry.LocalMachine.OpenSubKey(@"SOFTWARE\MPG Lab"); if (regkey != null)...{ object obj = regkey.GetValue("DestPath"); if (obj != null)...{ return obj.ToString(); } } if (false == Directory.Exists(GetExecutableLocation() + @"\regkey_not_found"))...{ Directory.CreateDirectory(GetExecutableLocation() + @"\regkey_not_found"); } return (GetExecutableLocation() + @"\regkey_not_found"); } private static string GetExecutableLocation() ...{ return Directory.GetParent(Assembly.GetEntryAssembly().Location).ToString(); } } }

3. 在SimpleCopy.cs同一目录下创建"data"子目录,在data\下创建一个任意内容的source.xml;
4. 在SimpleCopy.cs同一目录下编写SimpleCopy.wxs,其Schema文件wix.xsd可以在wix下载解压后的doc目录中找到。SimpleCopy.wxs内容如下:

<?xml version='1.0'?> <Wix xmlns='http://schemas.microsoft.com/wix/2003/01/wi'> <Product Id='c859431f-086d-4840-b2d7-a84b3bce50f2' Name='SimpleCopy' Language='1033' Version='1.0.0.0' Manufacturer='MPG China'> <Package Id='2738eb03-978b-4712-8e21-7e1868c74c2f' InstallerVersion='200' Compressed='yes' /> <Property Id='DESTPATH' Value ='C:\'/> <Media Id='1' Cabinet='product.cab' EmbedCab='yes' /> <Directory Id='TARGETDIR' Name='SourceDir'> <Directory Id='ProgramFilesFolder' Name='PFiles'> <Directory Id='AppDirectory' Name='SimpleCp' LongName='SimpleCopy'> <Component Id='ExecutableFile' DiskId='1' Guid='379ccaeb-a8c9-448e-a4b3-fa9884676492'> <File Id='SimpleCopy_exe' Name='SimpleCp.exe' LongName='SimpleCopy.exe' src='SimpleCopy.exe' /> </Component> <Directory Id='DataFolder' Name='data'> <Component Id='SrcXml' DiskId='1' Guid='746496f1-d2b1-4334-9b6f-00f71938c459'> <File Id='Source_xml' Name='source.xml' src='data\source.xml' /> <Registry Id='4e10403a-1976-447f-b38c-59839cb7c5cb' Root='HKLM' Type='string' Key='SOFTWARE\MPG Lab' Name='DestPath' Value ='[DESTPATH]'/> </Component> </Directory> </Directory> </Directory> </Directory> <Feature Id='AllFiles' Title='Simple Copy All Files' Level='1'> <ComponentRef Id='ExecutableFile' /> <ComponentRef Id='SrcXml' /> </Feature> <InstallExecuteSequence> <Custom Action='CreateScheduleTask' After='InstallFinalize'>NOT Installed</Custom> <Custom Action='DeleteScheduleTask' After='InstallFinalize'>Installed</Custom> </InstallExecuteSequence> <Property Id='SCHTASKS'>SCHTASKS.exe</Property> <CustomAction Id='CreateScheduleTask' Property='SCHTASKS' ExeCommand='/Create /RU "" /SC HOURLY /TN SimplyCopy /TR "%ProgramFiles%\SimpleCopy\SimpleCopy.exe"'/> <CustomAction Id='DeleteScheduleTask' Property='SCHTASKS' ExeCommand='/Delete /TN SimplyCopy /F'/> </Product> </Wix>

5. 打开命令行,进入SimpleCopy.cs所在的目录,先后运行candle SimpleCopy.wxs以及light SimpleCopy.wixobj,然后就得到SimpleCopy.msi了:

6. 在命令行运行“msiexec /i SimpleCopy.msi /quiet /log log.txt DESTPATH=d:\”就可以安装了。

相比较其他MSI编写工具(例如Visual Studio 2003/2005,以及InstallShield等),WiX的优点是:

  1. 便于版本控制(wxs是纯文本的);
  2. 便于自动化(编辑工具candle.exe和light.exe都是命令行的)。
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